Informal payments in Romanian health care system. A sample selection correction


Bianca Buligescu
Henry Espinoza Peňa


This paper draws on economic theory, sociology and political science approaches to explain informal payments in the Romanian health care system. It estimates the likelihood of paying a bribe (informal payment) using a reduced health care demand equation in a probit model with sample selection correction. Social capital, as having a relationship with doctors, and the perception of the health care system, as corrupt, are found to influence the probability of making an informal payment. The likelihood of making an informal payment in the Romanian health care system is modelled using a maximum-likelihood probit estimation with sample selection correction. In the selection equation, reduced health care demand, self-perceived health status and being afraid of diseases are used as exclusion restrictions for identifying the parameters of the econometric model.


Author Biographies

Bianca Buligescu, Research Institute for Quality of Life, Romanian Academy

Address: 13 September Road no. 13, District 5, 050711, Bucharest, Romania.


Henry Espinoza Peňa, Ministry of Economy and Finance

Address: Jr. Junín 319, Cercado de Lima, Lima-Peru, Peru.


How to Cite
Buligescu, B., & Espinoza Peňa, H. (2020). Informal payments in Romanian health care system. A sample selection correction. Sociologie Românească, 18(2), 40-73.


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