Sociologie Românească <p>Sociologie Românească (Romanian Sociology Review) is the official journal of the Romanian Sociological Association. First established in 1936, by the renowned (Romanian) scholar Dimitrie Gusti, the founder of the Sociological School of Bucharest, the Romanian Sociology Review is dedicated to promoting sociological knowledge and inquiry related to a broad-range of social processes. Covering different topics and domains, including social change, social development, social history, social policy, demography, gender studies, political issues, social inequalities, education, organization &amp; labour studies, criminology and migration studies, the review’s focus is oriented towards (but not limited to) empirical research from a sociological and historical approach.<br>Sociologie Românească is published under <a href="">Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International</a> (CC BY 4.0) license.</p> <p>ISSN 1220-5389<br>E-ISSN 2668-1455</p> Asociația Română de Sociologie en-US Sociologie Românească 1220-5389 Digital divides in education. An analysis of the Romanian public discourse on distance and online education during the COVID-19 pandemic <p>Adapting “face-to-face” education to distance/remote and/or online education in response to the COVID-19 pandemic has been a massive challenge for countries around the world. Online education reignited older debates about inclusive education, such as hoped-for universal access versus current digital divides, prompting the public to reflect about the past, the present, and future of the educational system. This article analyzes the Romanian public discourse, both scientific and non-scientific, on emerging distance and online education in Romania during the COVID-19 pandemic, in order to understand how public communication functioned as feedback for school digitalization. The paper charts the advantages and challenges of distance and online education experienced by various actors (teachers, students, and the members of civil society) or identified through scientific research, focusing on the way online education has spotlighted and reshaped social inequalities. We use thematic content analysis of 152 online articles published from March to June 2020 and eight scientific studies and reports. The results showed that public discourse about distance and online education was largely consistent within and across multiple stakeholders; also, the scientific reports were aligned with the other public opinions expressed and promoted via online channels. The general perspective of the emerging online education during COVID-19 is that it deepens the educational gaps and creates new forms of exclusion. On the positive side, some of the teachers have improved their teaching methods and educational content.</p> Alexandra Hosszu Cosima Rughiniș Copyright (c) 2020 Sociologie Românească 2020-11-10 2020-11-10 18 2 11 39 10.33788/sr.18.2.1 Informal payments in Romanian health care system. A sample selection correction <p>This paper draws on economic theory, sociology and political science approaches to explain informal payments in the Romanian health care system. It estimates the likelihood of paying a bribe (informal payment) using a reduced health care demand equation in a probit model with sample selection correction. Social capital, as having a relationship with doctors, and the perception of the health care system, as corrupt, are found to influence the probability of making an informal payment. The likelihood of making an informal payment in the Romanian health care system is modelled using a maximum-likelihood probit estimation with sample selection correction. In the selection equation, reduced health care demand, self-perceived health status and being afraid of diseases are used as exclusion restrictions for identifying the parameters of the econometric model.</p> Bianca Buligescu Henry Espinoza Peňa Copyright (c) 2020 Sociologie Românească 2020-11-10 2020-11-10 18 2 40 73 10.33788/sr.18.2.2 The curious story of the 2018 Romanian traditional family referendum: buck-passing and the failure to mobilise voters <p>In 2018, a referendum to revise the Constitution took place in Romania. Just one article was in contention for revision. The goal was to make gay marriage unconstitutional. In the end, the referendum failed due to a low turnout of just 21.1%, below the 30% threshold required for validation. This paper looks into the causes of the low turnout. First, there is an overview of knowns and unknowns, such as lack of exit poll data and issues with the voting population numbers. The bulk of the paper deals with two overlapping narratives about the causes of low turnout - first, a boycott campaign and second, a combination of factors, especially low mobilisation. Using precinct level results, supplemented by pre and post referendum polling data, an examination of evidence for both narratives is put forward. The results provide a case for failure of mobilisation by main political parties and religious organisations, especially the Orthodox Church, despite public statements of support for a “Yes” vote in the referendum. In turn, this was based on a buck-passing strategy by political parties and religious organisations.</p> Iulian Stănescu Copyright (c) 2020 Sociologie Românească 2020-11-10 2020-11-10 18 2 74 111 10.33788/sr.18.2.3 La théâtralité académique. L’usage de la métaphore dans la recherche sociologique <p>We propose to grasp conferences as an institutional ritual, which deploys a whole institutional theatricality. To do this, we use the metaphor of the orchestra; indeed each participant in the conference plays their part by adjusting to each other. The metaphor of the art of composition allows us to detect the process of shaping the knowledge of an academic text. The wide angle of reflection finds its inspiration in symbolic approaches to communication. The use of the metaphor in the understanding of academic practices, drives us to an imaginary approach framing an image, making analogies between the image and the object under study, to then take advantage of this operation of transposing the meaning of the image to the object of study. We thus have access to a fresh and imaginary angle on the rituals which mark the academic life, and which are not only duty bound.</p> Gina Stoiciu Copyright (c) 2020 Sociologie Românească 2020-11-10 2020-11-10 18 2 112 126 10.33788/sr.18.2.4 Aspecte ale relației maestru - discipol: Dimitrie Gusti și Mircea Vulcănescu <p>The present text analyzes some cultural aspects of the master-disciple relationship between Dimitrie Gusti and Mircea Vulcănescu. Insist especially on the topicality of Gustian sociology while taking Mircea Vulcănescu’s receiver. Mircea Vulcănescu’s discipleship starts with the coordination of the bachelor’s degree in sociology by Professor Dimitrie Gusti, and then continues with the writing of other studies. Participation in sociological campaigns field, seminars and sociology conferences will follow afterwards. The present study also has the interpretation that the disciple Mircea Vulcănescu gives to the sociological system of the declared teacher Dimitrie Gusti. The precise references are to the Aristotelian substrate of the relation between possibility and actuality, reflected by Dimitrie Gusti in the relation between cadres and manifestations; to the social will understood as an original expression of the voluntarism of Jean-Jacques Rousseau; to the archetypal character of the four Gustavian cadres; to Gusti’s sociological system defined as “system of social philosophy”. In this sense, Dimitrie Gusti’s system does not exclude science. On the contrary, it includes it in the sense of “sufficient reason” of all those existing in social life. Finally, I illustrated the importance of the social phenomenology practiced by Mircea Vulcănescu in the field sociological campaigns coordinated by Dimitrie Gusti with two classic examples and one current one. The first two refer to the analysis of a magico-religious phenomenon (the enchantment) and to the subtleties of the speculative vocation of the Romanian reflected linguistically. The present example is an attempt, partially original, to interpret in the spirit of the phenomenology proposed by Vulcănescu certain forms of popular culture that illustrate the non-canonical power of evil in Romanian history. At the limit, these fantasies of the efficacy of evil could more deeply explain the suspicion and distrust of Romanians.</p> Nicu Gavriluţă Copyright (c) 2020 Sociologie Românească 2020-11-10 2020-11-10 18 2 127 135 10.33788/sr.18.2.5 Drumul nostru către Dimitrie Gusti <p>This short paper is, in fact, a brief presentation of the independent research group the “Gusti Cooperative”, which has been investigating, for twenty years, the history of the Sociological School of Bucharest from a social history perspective. In the article a take a critical stance towards the diachronic practice of the history of sociology promoted from the 1960s onwards, advocating, instead, for a synchronic approach to the Gustian phenomenon. Therefore, in this short exploration, I emphasize that it is necessary to continue in-depth research of the contexts in which the School was active, as well as the need for auxiliary tools, while not attempting to make any kind of synthesis.</p> Zoltán Rostás Copyright (c) 2020 Sociologie Românească 2020-11-10 2020-11-10 18 2 136 139 10.33788/sr.18.2.6 Rezonanțe gustiene: legături istorice, epistemologice și de destin între sociologie și antropologie <p>In the interwar period of time, a team of four to six biological anthropologists headed by Francisc Rainer attended the monographical researches in the framework of Dimitrie Gusti’s Sociological School. After war, while sociology was abolished by the communist political regime, anthropology survived under the leadership of the physician Ștefan Milcu, an ex-member of Rainer’s team. As Director of the Anthropological Research Centre, Milcu took over the idea of monographical research ‒ this time from a bioanthropological perspective. However, he invited to researches a few social scientists to cover some aspects of demography, family studies, ethnography etc. Among them, especially Traian Herseni and Vasile Caramelea (under the protection identity of “demographer”, “or statistician”) produced outstanding contributions to the monographs of the villages Clopotiva, Bătrîna, Nucșoara &amp; Cîmpu lui Neag ‒ all of them in the district of Hațeg, an ancient county of great importance for understanding the genesis of the Romanian people. A collateral super-effect of this activity was the foundation ‒ în 1964, at Vasile Caramelea’s initiative ‒ of the Section of cultural anthropology in the organization of the Anthropological Research Centre. This inauguration is interpreted again as “an adequate illustration of Thomas Kuhn’s theory about the changing of paradigm în science” (Geană, 2014b).</p> Gheorghiță Geană Copyright (c) 2020 Sociologie Românească 2020-11-10 2020-11-10 18 2 140 162 10.33788/sr.18.2.7 The border is not the territory: the securitarian-humanitarian dialectic and the outsourcing of European borders <p>At the core of the European projects there is a fundamental tension between the securitarian and the humanitarian aspects of border and foreign policy, especially in its response to the Mediterranean Migration Crisis. This tension has far reaching consequences, from the outsourcing of border controls to third party states to fundamental changes in the makeup of the European Project. Starting from Etienne Balibar’s seminal question “what makes a border” I explore several facets of European border enforcement and the impact it is having on the European project.</p> Dragoș Costache Copyright (c) 2020 Sociologie Românească 2020-11-10 2020-11-10 18 2 163 174 10.33788/sr.18.2.8 In Memoriam Florin Faje (15.10.1984-15.01.2020) <p>Florin Faje (15.10.1984-15.01.2020) passed away unexpectedly at the age of 35 leaving behind a devastated family and a mourning academic community. His contributions to the anthropology of sport, ethno-nationalism in relation with class divides, state-formation and social history in Central and Eastern Europe remain truly remarkable proofs of an insightful and prolific anthropological spirit. His classes on economic and cultural anthropology, and his critical reading of development and globalisation studies kept generations of students at the Babeș-Bolyai University of Cluj engaged and motivated to widen their knowledge. His PhD thesis in Sociology and Social Anthropology, "Playing to Win, Learning to Lose. Sport, Nation and State in Interwar Romania", defended in 2014 with Magna cum Laudae at the Central European University - Budapest is awaiting publication.</p> Facultatea de Sociologie și Asistență Socială, Universitatea Babeș-Bolyai Copyright (c) 2020 Sociologie Românească 2020-11-10 2020-11-10 18 2 175 177 10.33788/sr.18.2.9 Despre Roni, așa cum l-am cunoscut. In memoriam prof. univ. dr. Robert Doron Reisz (13.11.1964-02.02.2020) <p>This short piece represents an evocation of professor Reisz’s generous personality. He was a wonderful and supportive colleague, and he will surely be missed. His professional and moral legacy will nevertheless continue to grow.</p> Emanuel Copilaș Copyright (c) 2020 Sociologie Românească 2020-11-10 2020-11-10 18 2 178 179 10.33788/sr.18.2.10 Do you like where I brought you? Disenchantment and re-enchantment in Vintilă Mihăilescu’s anthropological teachings (25.05.1951-22.03.2020) <p>Always provoking, creating disruption, advocating for inclusiveness, questioning elite assumptions and often going against the grain of dominant intellectual voices, Vintilă’s pedagogical lessons remain a source of inspiration for those whom he has shaped as students and influenced as colleagues. The bulk of the students still come from a diversity of professional and educational backgrounds, ranging from the humanities to technical fields. What they seek are answers; what we still aim to provide, in keeping with Vintilă’s legacy, is the ability to ask the right questions and to think anthropologically, no matter the field.</p> Bogdan Iancu Monica Stroe Copyright (c) 2020 Sociologie Românească 2020-11-10 2020-11-10 18 2 180 183 10.33788/sr.18.2.11 Un irepetabil Adio Ioan Pășcuță (10.05.1953-27.04.2020) <p>Prof. Ioan Pășcuță was an important sociologist for the 70s generation. He was the Vice-dean at the Faculty of Sociology and Psychology, and Director of Roman Banat-Crișana Social Institute, and conducted a lot research in the field of rural-urban inequality, education, and interculturality in the area of Timis county.We will always remember fondly his name.</p> Ștefan Buzărnescu Copyright (c) 2020 Sociologie Românească 2020-11-10 2020-11-10 18 2 184 185 10.33788/sr.18.2.12 PECSRL 2018: European landscapes for quality of life, 3-9 September 2018, Clermont-Ferrand and Mende, France <p>This article presents a review of the 28th session of the biannual conference of the Permanent European Conference for the Study of the Rural Landscape which was organized in cooperation with the COST action TU1401 “Renewable energy and landscape quality”, building the final conference of the later, after a previous cooperation at the 27th session. The conference was held in Clermont-Ferrand and Mende, around the Chaîne des Puys UNESCO landscape. The landscape, although in France, is one of the remote landscapes in Europe, and was explored by means of the study tours which built the transfer between the first part of the conference in Clermont-Ferrand and the second one in Mende. These tours were various, but emphasized a dimension already present in the session, the agricultural landscape as rural landscape. The agricultural landscape stays also in connection with the geo-products of the UNESCO geopark, and contributes to the quality of life. As management committee substitute in the COST action, a networking scheme funded at European level, the author attended the sessions related to the topic of the action and presented a contribution highlighting the romantic of historic renewable energy landscapes. Their perception contributes to the quality of life as well. Other participants from Romania participated to a dedicated session on Eastern Europe.</p> Maria Bostenaru Dan Copyright (c) 2020 Sociologie Românească 2020-11-10 2020-11-10 18 2 186 198 10.33788/sr.18.2.13 Conferința Națională de Asistență Socială Penitenciară cu participare internațională – ediția Ia, Iași, 14-16 martie 2019 <p>The context or pretext of this Conference was a challenge for the experts of different domains to identify some solutions in order to build a safer society for us and our children by studying: the aspects regarding the origins and typologies of criminal behaviors, the elements of the theory and practice of social services towards inmates and the mechanism and importance of institutional collaboration for relapse prevention. The penitentiary as “<em>a total institution</em>”, tight, with its own organization, is just like any other community, governed by written and unwritten rules. Besides solitude, depression, rage, indignation, in this world one can feel positivism, power of rehabilitation and desire for affirmation. This is the context where the penitentiary social worker has to, on the short term, demonstrate the capacity of fast decision making. On the other hand, on the long term, he/she must intervene one step at the time using high-fidelity techniques, scientifically approved for the targeted population; all of this representing an assurance of professional success. The complexity of the detention imposes an integrated and complete approach; thus the actual approaches must be completed with new techniques that regard the human as a whole in a shifting dynamic.</p> Cristina Dumitran Copyright (c) 2020 Sociologie Românească 2020-11-10 2020-11-10 18 2 199 202 10.33788/sr.18.2.14 Din nou, ACUM, Brașov, 17-19 octombrie 2019 <p>The International Colloquium of Social Sciences and Communication ACUM (NOW) took place in Brasov in between 17th and 19th of October 2019, over three sunny autumn days. The event was organized by the Faculty of Sociology and Communication of the University Transylvania and by the Society of Sociologists of Romania. The keynote speakers were: Bogdan Voicu (R.I.Q.L.) with a communication about migration as a double osmosis, Robbie Gilligan (University of Dublin), with a paper about working with vulnerable young people, Sylvie Huet, (University of Clermond), who investigated the “glass ceilings”, and Mihai Burlacu, from the Bucharest Polytechnic, with a reconsideration of the anthropological space as heterotopia. The colloquium organized by SSR is already part of a local university tradition of national and international openness. Slowly but steadily, a real international character of scientific manifestations in Romania is formed, much less cosmopolitan than similar conferences in the global West, but with a constant presence of foreign guests and participants who bring a much needed diversity of perspectives and research themes. During the works, we received a very careful reception from colleagues in sessions that put together various contributions, from long-term individual research topics to recent exploratory research.The event was one that confirmed its success over the years, thus strengthening Brasov's place on the map of social sciences in Romania.</p> Cătălin Berescu Copyright (c) 2020 Sociologie Românească 2020-11-10 2020-11-10 18 2 203 205 10.33788/sr.18.2.15 Social Work International Conference (SWIC) 2019 “The place and role of social work in the 2020s and beyond”, The fourth edition, Bucharest, November 7TH-8TH, 2019 <p>The 4<sup>th</sup> edition of the Social Work International Conference (SWIC) took place in Bucharest between the 7<sup>th</sup> and 8<sup>th</sup> of November 2019. The conference is organised by the Department of Social Work, Faculty of Sociology and Social Work, University of Bucharest, in collaboration with the Association of Schools of Social Work in Romania (ASSWR). We present the main activities of the conference, namely the workshops, the keynote speeches, and the presentation of papers in the field of social work.</p> Daniela Gaba Anca Mihai Copyright (c) 2020 Sociologie Românească 2020-11-10 2020-11-10 18 2 206 208 10.33788/sr.18.2.16 Institutul de Cercetare a Calității Vieții: 30 de ani de cercetare în beneficiul societății românești <p>The Research Institute for Quality of Life at the Romanian Academy was established in January 1990 with the purpose of conducting research on social change in post-communist Romania. In 2020 RIQL celebrated 30 years of existence, 30 years in the service of Romania society. The celebration held in the aula of the Romanian Academy pointed out the great contribution of the institute to the development of social sciences and of Romanian society over the past three decades.</p> Mălina Voicu Copyright (c) 2020 Sociologie Românească 2020-11-10 2020-11-10 18 2 209 210 10.33788/sr.17.2.17 2020, an omagial Dimitrie Gusti: 140 de ani de la nașterea fondatorului Școlii Sociologice de la București <p>2020 marks the 140 years after the birth of Dimitrie Gusti, the founder of the Bucharest Sociological School. On this special ocassion, on 13th of February 2020 a dedicated conference was organisedin the Ceremony Hall of the Romanian Academy.</p> Simona Maria Stănescu Copyright (c) 2020 Sociologie Românească 2020-11-10 2020-11-10 18 2 211 214 10.33788/sr.18.2.18 Interviu cu Adrian Majuru, căștigătorul premiului Academiei Române, „Henri H. Stahl” în sociologie, pentru cartea Francisc Iosif Rainer. Biografia unui proiect de viață (1874-1944), Editura Oscar Print, București, 2018 <p>Back in 1879 two Romanian Academy’s prizes were established for science and literature: „Gheorghe Lazăr” and „Ion Heliade Rădulescu” (<a href=""></a>). The prizes of the Romanian Academy „are awarded to Romanian scientists and artists living here or abroad for their contribution (…) to the development of Romanian culture and science” (<a href=""></a>). Since 1996, the Romanian Academy is awarding yearly excellence in domains corresponding to its scientific sections: I Philology and literature, II Historical sciences and archeology, III Mathematics, IV Physics, V Chemistry, VI Biology, VII Geonomic, VIII Technical section, IX Agricultural and Forestry section, X Medicine section, XI Economic, juridical and sociology section, XII Philosophy, theology, psychology and pedagogy section, XIII Art, architecture and audiovisual section and XIV Science and technology of information section. Under the section XI Economic, juridical and sociological sciences, two awards are available for Sociology area: „Dimitrie Gusti” and „Henri H. Stahl”. This interview is conducted with the winner of „Henri H. Stahl” awarded in 2020. More details on history of these awards as well as guidelines and 1998-2017 lists are available on <a href=""></a>.</p> Simona Maria Stănescu Copyright (c) 2020 Sociologie Românească 2020-11-10 2020-11-10 18 2 215 220 10.33788/sr.18.2.19 Review essay Modernitatea tendenţială. Reflecții despre evoluția modernă a societății, Editura Tritonic, București, 2016. Constantin Schifirneţ <p>This review essay examines the theory of tendential modernity, elaborated by Constantin Schifirneț, through the lens of decolonial theory. It attempts to put these two macrosociological paradigms into a critical dialogue.</p> Ion Matei Costinescu Copyright (c) 2020 Sociologie Românească 2020-11-10 2020-11-10 18 2 221 225 10.33788/sr.18.2.20 „Transhumanță” interbelică în Balcani. Studii și articole despre aromâni în publicațiile Școlii Gustiene. Antologie de Zoltán Rostás și Martin Ladislau Salamon, Editura Eikon, București, 2017. Zoltán Rostás, Martin Ladislau Salamon <p>The volume includes an anthology of research from the publications of the Bucharest Sociological School regarding the history of interbellum colonization of Dobrudja, with a focus on Aromanians – resources otherwise difficult to find for contemporary readers. The texts provide a rich historical perspective, previously unpublished materials and suggestive details concerning the adventures of Aromanians caught in the rollercoaster of interbellum colonization of Dobrudja. The dataset generated through this volume is highly relevant for advances in sociological methodology, documenting the outlining, decades before its centrality in global literature, of a novel approach – the action research, a productive combination of demands for scientific neutrality and axiological involvement (Bradbury and Reason, 2003).</p> Maria Larionescu Copyright (c) 2020 Sociologie Românească 2020-11-10 2020-11-10 18 2 226 230 10.33788/sr.18.2.21 Francisc Iosif Rainer. Biografia unui proiect de viaţă (1874-1944), Editura Oscar Print, Bucureşti, 2017. Adrian Majuru <p>The book, written by Adrian Majuru, is devoted to the life and work of Francisc Iosif Rainer (1874-1944), a professor of anatomy in Interwar Bucharest and Jassy who initiated a modern school of anthropology in Romania. Rainer would impose an holistic conception of anthropology, underlying the 'close relationship between biology, social environment and culture'. Francisc Rainer contributed to the establishment of the Institute of Physical Education and organized the teaching of artistic anatomy at the Academy of Fine Arts in Bucharest.</p> Octavian Buda Copyright (c) 2020 Sociologie Românească 2020-11-10 2020-11-10 18 2 231 233 10.33788/sr.18.2.22 Impactul criminalității asupra dezvoltării economico-sociale regionale în România, Editura Pro Universitaria, București, 2018. Radu Tudor Petre <p>The purpose of this review is to highlight the novelty elements of the research carried out by Mr. Radu Tudor Petre on <em>The impact of crime on regional economic and social development in Romania. </em>The very first work is to use and adapt to national specificities certain working methods and tools validated by other States, for which crime control and the effective spending of public money is a priority. The multifactorial crime model, the model of situational prevention through regional planning, the calculation of the regional cost of crime per capita, the application of the Granger causality test on the criminal phenomena variables and the Gini index of social inequality, resulting in the likelihood of the causal link between crime, have been tested and adapted, level of economic development and corruption index. Research has emerged as a necessity in the current socio-economic and political national and international context, which inevitably generates new forms of organized crime or the increasing level of existing crime, so that the institutional capacity of a state to anticipate trends or developments in this phenomenon and the assessment of the social and economic impact it has had lead to the adoption of viable regional, national and transnational crime prevention and reduction policies, linked to regional development programs. The quality of the paper is that, by linking social issues (social exclusion, unemployment, early school leaving, risk of victimization, disadvantaged background, etc.), crime and their economic and social impact on regional development, open up new opportunities for cross-disciplinary research.</p> Cristina Dumitran Copyright (c) 2020 Sociologie Românească 2020-11-11 2020-11-11 18 2 234 238 10.33788/sr.18.2.23 Sociologia proastei guvernări în România interbelică, Editura RAO, București, 2019. Bogdan Bucur <p>This review seeks to critically unravel Bogdan Bucur's Sociology of Bad Governance in Interwar Romania by using both an emic and an etic approach. From an emic perspective, that is, from inside the book, Bogdan Bucur's intellectual effort is really impressive. Despite a huge amount of data, Sociology of Bad Governance in Interwar Romania proves itself quite easy to read thanks to a solid organization. Additionally, due to the fact that the author has employed a classic academic recipe, the abovementioned book is also very coherent. However, looked at it etically, the book loses its internal coherence due to some conceptual and methodological blunders. Conceptually, despite the fact that the book brings to the fore the issue of bad governance and that it includes a theoretical chapter, the concept of good governance is left unaddressed. Methodologically, the author seems to have fallen in the trap of methodological nationalism. A consistent liberal and neo-marxist literature has already addressed the state as a historical institution which is more or less dependent on the international milieu. In his attempt to explain the administrative failures of the interwar Romanian state, the author has completely overlooked the path dependence explanation and the impact former empires had had on post-colonial states. Thus, a confusion between causes and manifestations of bad governance has emerged.</p> Lucian Dumitrescu Copyright (c) 2020 Sociologie Românească 2020-11-11 2020-11-11 18 2 239 243 10.33788/sr.18.2.24 The Digital Divide, Editura Polity Press, Cambridge, Regatul Unit, 2020. Jan van Dijk <p><em>The Digital Divide</em> is the result of 25 years of research in the field of digital division. It summarizes the latest studies from access to digital devices (first level of the digital divide), to digital skills and use (level II) and the results/benefits of using or not using digital (level III). The aim of the paper is to clarify the latest concepts on digital inequality and its relationship with social division. Jan van Dijk presents the theories underlying the spread of technology in society and the main directions of approach in recent studies, according to which the use of media technologies reduces social inequality, increases social inequality or has no effect on it.</p> Mirela-Lăcrimioara Cosma Copyright (c) 2020 Sociologie Românească 2020-11-11 2020-11-11 18 2 244 248 10.33788/sr.18.2.25