In the interwar period, Dimitrie Gusti, the founder of The Sociological School of Bucharest, along with other remarkable Romanian intelectuals, came to the conclusion that Romania’s social, economic, spiritual and political development was to be substantially influenced by the way peasantry’s problem was to be taken care of. In thinking so, Gusti has initiated the monographic campaigns which were to examine the Romanian village’s specific problems from a scientific point of view. Based on Gusti’s sociological system, the monographic teams revealed a traditional life shaped by a philosophy that had been the guiding thread of a millenary culture and civilization, namely the peasant one. Gusti put his indelible mark, i.e. sociologia militans and sociologia cogitans, on the reformation project of interwar Romania. This article discusses the meaning of sociologia cogitans and sociologia militans. It also presents some difficulties that Gusti’s sociologia militans had to overcome by highlighting the pre-modern social background of interwar Romania. Dimitrie Gusti was one of the most important experts involved in the interwar nation-building process. By presenting his educational background and the way he was influenced by the most prominent trends in the Romanian modern culture, the article highlights the modernization vision employed by Dimitrie Gusti throughout his career.
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